A question that often pops up in political discussions is “Where do our rights come from?”
This query is frequently confused with another related question: Are our rights natural (innate) or not?
Libertarian anarchy holds that rights are innate; in other words, we possess them as part of our existence. They are not acquired or earned. No one else gives them to us, nor do we give other people their rights. We have them whether anyone acknowledges them or not, and we do not require actions on their part in order to exercise our rights.
Specifically, we have only one actual right; the right to our property. It is from this right we have a just claim to own ourselves, self-ownership. We have property in ourselves. We also have the right to speech, worship, and other liberties because they either involve ourselves or our property.
But some might ask “So where do our natural/innate rights come from?”
While it is indeed something worth investigating, I find it to be irrelevant within the context of whether our rights are innate or not. It also goes outside the perimeters of libertarianism because the answer has implications beyond the political.
Think of it this way: We know the Earth exists. We know the universe exists. But we do not need to know where they came from to prove they actually exist (unless you care to argue a la Decartes that the only thing for certain is that you exist). Whether it was the result of a Big Bang or God speaking the universe into existence, none of that changes whether these things in fact exist.
One can argue that our innate rights come from our humanity, our possession of conscious self-awareness not granted to other creatures. Or you could argue that they come from a Supreme Being which has the ultimate authority to give us our innate rights.
Either way, it doesn’t have any relevance to whether or not we actually have said rights.
Now one could argue that we don’t have innate rights, as utilitarianism does, but again, that is another topic.