The current political upheaval in Ukraine, most noticeably seen during a violent protest in Kiev, demonstrates the conflict and violence that results from having a centralized government. Rather than bring peace and stability, it can often lead to instability and discord as separate factions battle for control of it.
At the risk of simplifying Ukrainian politics, or just politics in general, there are two separate regions or sections of the country. The western half sees itself as more European and wants closer ties to Europe in terms of trade and economics. The eastern half favors closer ties to Russia.
Zero Hedge has a fascinating map of the country that gives the percentages of those who identify themselves as Russian by each region, clearing show an east/west divide between the nation.
Because they have a single, centralized government running the entire country, the people of Ukraine are not allowed to do as they wish in their own areas. Instead, only one viewpoint can be carried out through the government, which is enforced on the rest of the country. Therefore, to do as you wish, you must control the government. Some are willing to kill to do so. This may not be moral, but it is not illogical. Since the government itself is a tool of violence and coercion, it is only natural that people who want to control it are willing to use the same methods.
In a libertarian anarchist society, or at the very least a decentralized country, the deadly protests in Kiev and the ensuing fallout would not have happened, because each region could do as they please. They could conduct trade with anyone as they wish while not interfering with the affairs of other Ukrainians.
On a side note, the belief in central government is the direct cause of every civil war in history, from the numerous Roman Civil Wars to the Spanish Civil War in the 20th Century. Only when you accept the premise that a single government can be allowed to rule over a country, rather than let the various sections run themselves, can you initiate or fight in a war against your fellow countrymen.
This also means that those protesting against the current regime are not necessarily in favor of freedom. They may simply wish to control the central government themselves. As it has been the case in much of history, the protesters today become dictators tomorrow, after the revolution.
For the sake of brevity, I am putting aside the greater international politics involved between the United States and Russia, both of which are determined to meddle in this country’s affairs.
Here, Ron Paul explains why allowing the different parts of Ukraine to manage themselves without a centralized government would end the current strife.